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Attorneys from Hobbs Straus drafted international cooperation agreement between U.S. and Bolivian tribal organizations for the implementation of collaborative program activities, including the training, development and mentoring of indigenous leaders.


Attorney Biography - Patrick M. Sullivan

Of Counsel
Tel: 503.242.1745
Fax: 503.242.1072

Attorney Biography - Chris Z. Cantrell

Of Counsel
Tel: 405.602.9425
Fax: 405.602.9426

Federal Legislation & Rulemaking

  • Advise tribal gaming commissions on the administration of regulatory functions consistent with the requirements of federal, tribal and state laws and regulations.
  • Advocate before Congress, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in support of tribal rights and against proposals to limit those rights.
  • Advise and represent clients on conflicts that arise under tribal-state gaming compacts.
  • Monitor, analyze and report on


  • Promote the resolution of differences with federal and state governments and agencies by negotiation.
  • Recommend litigation only on the rare occasion when it is necessary to defend and advance tribal gaming rights when, for example, a state refuses to negotiate a gaming compact as required by federal law
  • Represent tribes in litigation against developers and game vendors when contractual obligations are not fulfilled

Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Assessments

  • Provide counsel to tribes on complying with federal, state and tribal regulations and tax laws for the distribution of gaming revenues for employees, independent contractors and vendors for:
    • Withholding the proper amounts
    • Properly depositing withholdings
    • Properly reporting gaming winnings
    • Providing and filing proper information returns
  • Advise and assist clients on responding to IRS inquiries and

National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) Enforcement

  • Provide counsel on issues of potential violation of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA).
  • Represent clients in the event that the NIGC determines a violation has occurred.
  • Work to negotiate favorable settlement of issues to avoid the expense and difficulty of litigation.

Management, Development Consulting & Other Agreements

  • Negotiate agreements necessary to establish and operate gaming facilities by Indian tribes, including:
    • Management contracts
    • Development agreements
    • Land purchase agreements for property conveyed to the United States in trust in order to make the land eligible for gaming under federal law
    • Assist in obtaining the necessary approvals from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC)


Gaming Ordinance & Regulation Development

  • Assist with the development of tribal gaming ordinances regulated by tribal governments.
  • Advise and assist tribal gaming commissions with the development of regulations to implement their regulatory responsibilities, including:
    • Internal control standards
    • Game classification issues
    • Technical standards
    • Licensing hearings
    • Vendor licensing requirements

Game Analysis

  • Provide analysis of the permitted scope of gaming for purposes of Class III compact negotiations and the scope of permitted games under existing compacts.
  • Advocate and monitor for the broad scope of Class II gaming permitted to tribes under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA).
  • Analyze and issue opinions on a wide range of Class II card games and electronically linked bingo games.


Indian gaming presents tribes with great opportunities — opportunities tied to economic growth, opportunities for development, and opportunities to improve the lives for many in Indian Country. Nationally recognized as one of the leading Indian law firms in this field, Hobbs Straus has been at the forefront of assisting tribes on gaming and gaming related issues since its earliest days.

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